Our alphabetical guide to sex and pleasure: a work-in-progress.
From aftercare to zones, this A-Z guide collates our pleasure-positive sex education with the lessons we’ve learned from sex experts and our community. It breaks down some of the language that we use here at Smile Makers, so if you want to understand sexual wellness terms a little better, then this is the place for you!
Remember, this is not an exhaustive list, and there is an abundance of terminology and knowledge out there; this is just a little insight into the wonderful world of pleasure. Our A-Z sex dictionary is a forever work-in-progress; we are always learning, and the conversation around sexuality is always growing.
A of sexual wellness.
Aftercare is the bit AFTER sex. Partnered sex can leave us with lots of emotions, so checking in with our partner(s) is a healthy habit to include in your sex routines. It can give you and your partner(s) a space and a chance to connect and share what you liked and what you didn’t, helping all parties to feel safe and seen.
Age of consent.
This is the age when somebody of any sex, gender or sexual orientation can legally consent to having partnered sex. This varies depending on what country or state you are in.
The anal canal is the part that connects the rectum to the anus, located just below the level of the pelvic diaphragm.
This is any kind of penetration or stimulation of the anus. Anal sex can be super pleasurable for many vulva owners, especially when combined clitoral or vaginal stimulation. It's not just about partnered pleasure, anal vibrators help us explore solo, too. Like anything to do with sex, it’s important to remember that everyone’s pleasure is different, so what works for some people might not work for others.
Anilingus, also known as rimming, is a type of oral sex that involves stimulation of the anus with a mouth. This could be with the tongue or the lips. Top tip! If you want to experiment with anilingus solo, try a tongue vibrator with a lick of lube to create that tongue-like feeling.
The anus, or what’s visible between the butt cheeks, is the opening to the rectum. It is made up of two muscular rings: the internal and external sphincter. Remember that for anal pleasure, you don’t actually have to go that deep as the anus’ many nerve endings are centered just around the opening! In fact, studies have shown that 35% of women find shallow anal stimulation pleasurable - about a fingertip in.
This is a substance which can increase libido, sexual desire or pleasure. This could be a food, drink or scent. The most natural aphrodisiac you have probably heard of is oysters. Lighting aphrodisiacal candles for solo sesh can be a really nice way to romanticize your self pleasure and connect with your body.
Arousal refers to the body's physiological changes in reaction to sexual stimuli (vaginal lubrication, erected nipples, etc). Arousal is purely biology in action, rather than voluntary!
Arousal fluid is produced by the glands around the vagina in reaction to sexual stimulation. Arousal fluid is usually clear, wet and slippery. Vaginal lubrication is one of the most well known and it is produced to facilitate touch and penetration. There are lots of factors that can facilitate a lack of natural lubrication though, so a good lube can work wonders!
This is the circular area of pigmented skin surrounding the nipple. Areolae are unique and come in all kinds of shapes, sizes and colors.
B of sexual wellness.
Put simply, BDSM stands for bondage, discipline (or domination), sadism, and masochism as a sexual practice.
Birth control is a method or medicine which is used to prevent pregnancy. For example condoms and the contraceptive pill. If one isn’t working out for you, don’t panic! Different methods of birth control will work for different people, so experiment with different things and find the right method for you.
Body autonomy is a person’s capacity to assert control and agency over their own bodies. This can include anything from hand-holding to consenting to partnered sex.
Personal boundaries are our individual limits and needs within the context of ALL of our relationships, not just applying to our romantic relationships but also our platonic relationships.
Body language is the non-verbal signals we use to communicate our emotions. It can be deliberate or involuntary, but it’s very important to engage with your partner(s) body language in a sexual context as it can communicate emotions, like if they are enjoying something or want to continue having sex.
Body neutrality involves adopting a balanced attitude towards your body, both emotionally and physically. It involves trying to have indifference towards your own body, and rather than disliking or or loving it, you are simply at peace with it. We believe that by embracing body neutrality, we can inspire less focus on how we look and more on how we feel during sex.
C of sexual wellness.
This can be a one time thing or on an on-going basis. If all parties consent and are practicing safe casual sex, it can be a wonderful way to connect with different people and discover what you like and dislike.
Cervical mucus is produced by, you guessed it, the cervix, which is the opening to the uterus. The consistency, color and amount can change depending on where you might be in your menstrual cycle.
A cervical orgasm results from pressure or rubbing against the cervix. The nerves around the cervix are very sensitive, meaning you can have a verrrry intense orgasm. There are lots of nerves and they are all around the pelvis, so it can create a ‘full-body’ feeling. However, not everyone will enjoy this kind of stimulation, so take your time and figure out what feels good.
The cervix connects the vaginal canal with the uterus and its main function is to allow blood and discharge out, and semen in. It also helps deliver babies during birth and protects our bodies from STIs.
There are SO many ways to rub the clit, stroking or orbiting with your fingers or with a vibrator and trust us, it is one of the most effective ways to try masturbating the clitoris.
Also known as the prepuce, this is the fold of skin that surrounds and protects the clitoral glans. Much like foreskin protects the head of the penis.
A very significant pleasure organ and erogenous zone which has around 10,000 nerve endings and interacts with 15,000 more. It is also made up of erectile tissue, which means that it will swell upon arousal, increasing in sensitivity. The clitoris is actually the only organ in the entire human body that the sole purpose of is pleasure! How cool is that?
Another word for reaching orgasm, which describes the peak of pleasure sensations. Basically, a physiological response to sexual stimulation through rhythmic vaginal muscle contractions.
Compulsory heterosexuality is the theory that heterosexuality is assumed and enforced upon us by a patriarchal and cis-heteronormative society, which can have a big influence on our sex lives. This term was popularized by Adrienne Rich in 1980.
Sexual consent is all about enthusiastic agreement! It's when all parties involved willingly and excitedly say "yes" to any sexual activity. Consent is cool, it's crucial, and it's all about respect and communication. Remember, consent is sexy, so let's keep it hot and consensual!
They're thin, protective sleeves made latex or polyurethane that keep you safe from unwanted surprises while adding that extra peace of mind. Condoms are the only contraception that also provide a barrier method to STIs. Safety and pleasure? Now that's a winning combo!
This is just another term for birth control, and comes in many options from pills, patches, rings, to adventurous IUDs, helping you prevent unplanned pregnancies. Contraception is the responsibility of all who take part in vaginal intercourse.
This is a commonly used term for orgasm, ejaculation, or semen - depending on the context.
Cunnilingus is oral sex involving a vulva, where the labia, clitoris, and vaginal opening are stimulated by the tongue, lips or mouth.
D of sexual wellness.
Dental dams are a thin sheet of latex which can be placed over the vulva or anus when receiving oral stimulation. They are an excellent barrier method for STIs such as herpes, gonorrhea or syphilis. You can make a dental dam out of a condom, too!
A person’s sexual desire refers to their emotional want for sex. You may have heard of terms such as 'libido' or 'sexual appetite' - both have to do with someone's sexual desire.
Vaginal discharge is female bodily fluid that helps to keep the vagina clean and moist, protecting it from any infections.
The doggy sex position involves one partner being on all fours and the other partner penetrating from behind. Think penis, vibrator, strap-on...
Dry humping involves grinding against your partner’s body or genitals with clothing on. To try it solo you can keep your underwear on and use a vibrator or pillow, with clothing on.
E of sexual wellness.
The ‘edging’ masturbation and vibrator technique involves stimulation right up until the point of climax, but stopping just before orgasm. You can repeat this process as many times as it is pleasurable, and it can help to extend a session and intensify orgasm.
Contrary to popular belief, folks of all genders and all genitalia can get erections, not just people with penises! For penis havers, an erection is a hardening of the penis that occurs when sponge-like tissue inside the penis fills up with blood. For the clitoris, it is made of erectile tissue, which means that some parts of the clitoris can swell with blood, and become hard when aroused.
Erectile tissue is any tissue that stiffens or enlarges with blood. When you are aroused, there is an increased blood flow to the erectile tissue (hence why deep breaths can help increase sensation during sex!). Erectile tissue is actually found in the penis, vulva and nipples!
Our erotic imaginations are deeply personal, and depend on our education, life experiences, kinks, sexuality and the way we process the world's stimuli. It can play a key role in the sexual response cycle, as it can fire up our desire, which triggers physiological signs of arousal.
An essential reproductive hormone in all genders, also known as oestrogen, is often associated with the female sex due to its involvement in developing the female reproductive system and managing the menstrual cycle. While its significance is greater in those assigned-female-at-birth, everyone produces oestrogen regardless of gender, with its production and regulation depending on other reproductive hormones.
Ever heard of the sexual response cycle? Well, this is the first stage. During this stage you may see an increased heart rate and blood flow to the genitals. For vulva owners, this stage might also involve vaginal lubrication, erect nipples and a swelling of the breasts.
F of sexual wellness.
Sexual fantasies are the mind's way of creating imaginary scenarios. Even if they involve individuals other than your partner, it is not considered cheating. Acting on these fantasies in real life is a personal choice, as long as everyone involved gives consent. The possibilities are limitless, so explore, experiment, and enjoy!
A type of oral sex involving penis stimulation with mouth, tongue or lips.
Some people with vulvas release a discharge during climax, though it does often go unnoticed! This is called female ejaculation and is produced by the the ‘Skene's glands', two small ducts either side of the urethra.
Unlike kink, which is something that someone likes to do, fetish is something that someone has to do in order to have sexual pleasure.
G of sexual wellness.
The G-spot is an internal erogenous zone found on the front wall of the vagina (the one closest to your belly button). G-spot stimulation can be super satisfying, although this might not be the case for everyone, so don’t worry if it’s not for you.
Gender affirming pleasure.
The gender affirming approach to sex and pleasure is all about ditching the assumptions and cis, heteronormative norms and making everyone feel comfortable in their own skin. It’s important to ask someone what language they use to refer to their genitals and to not prescribe someone with certain words or preferred sex positions based on their gender expression.
Many people swear on this masturbation technique as a way to literally ground their sexual energy after sex. Using the palm of your or your partners hand over your vulva, simply hold still as the intense post orgasmic sensations dissipate. After a few moments try returning to your sexual activity, partnered or solo and notice any difference you might have sensitivity wise. This is a great technique to experience multiple orgasms, too!
Gender is expressed rather than assigned. According to the nonprofit organization GLAAD, gender expression is the 'external manifestations of gender, expressed through a person's name, pronouns, clothing, haircut, behavior, voice, and/or body characteristic'.
H of sexual wellness.
The act of stimulating a person's penis with a hand. This can be solo or partnered.
A hormonal imbalance happens when you have too much or too little of one or more hormones. This can lead to lots of different hormonal conditions, and impact not only our libido but also how we experience pleasure. So, if something feels a little bit off, check in with a health professional to learn more about what's going on with your body.
Hormones are chemicals that function as messengers within the body. Produced by one part of the body, they travel to different areas, playing a crucial role in regulating the functioning of cells and organs. Our main sex hormones are estrogen, testosterone, and progesterone. They are responsible for things such as pregnancy, puberty, menstruation, menopause, sex drive and sperm production. Menstrual cycle hormones can have a huge impact on pleasure for those that menstruate.
The hymen comes up in lots of conversations about sex and ‘virginity’, but what actually is it? Well, it is a piece of tissue covering part of the vaginal opening, formed during development and actually has no real biological purpose. It's a common belief that it will break and bleed when we first experience penetrative sex, and while this can happen, for many it won’t. This could be because it's got thinner and worn away with age, or perhaps because somebody didn’t have a hymen in the first place. Nevertheless, the misconceptions about the hymen can stop us from experimenting with masturbation in order to ‘preserve’ it for a partner, but it’s important to remember that a lot of these notions are rooted in outdated, heteronormative concepts of sex.
I of sexual wellness.
Identity inclusive language.
Identity inclusive language refers to making our language choices more identity focused. For example ‘people with penises’ and ‘people with vulvas', as women can have penises and men can have vulvas, and when talking about periods, ‘people who menstruate’ rather than for women. Identities are constantly evolving, so it’s important that our language reflects that. We champion this sexually expansive way to talking!
Penetrative partnered sex, vaginally or anally. Intercourse isn’t exclusive to ‘penis in vagina’ or anal sex, as all kinds of partners can explore penetration by using strap-ons and other sex toys.
Identity encompasses our self-concept. Our beliefs, values, characteristics, and how we view themselves in relation to the world. It can shape many aspects of our life including our home, community and sexuality - including how we want to give or receive pleasure.
J of sexual wellness.
Everyone’s journey with sex is different. We all have our own unique perspectives and experiences which shape how we interact with pleasure and sexuality.
K of sexual wellness.
Kink is generally defined as any non-conventional sex practises but it is important to mention that what we consider conventional is defined by society, so kink is pretty much just any uncommon turn on. Unlike fetish however, kink is something that someone likes to do during sexual pleasure.
L of sexual wellness.
The larger outer folds of the vulva are called the labia majora, and the smaller inner folds of the vulva called the labia minora. The labia plays a part in pleasure, as it is sensitive to touch and swells when aroused.
Layering is a pleasure technique for both partnered or solo sex. If you are finding the sensations too intense, try keeping your underwear on between fingers or an external vibrator and your clitoris, it will help to create a more cushioned friction.
Sex drive or desire for sex. It’s important to mention that everyone’s libido can vary, and this can depend on a number of things such as hormones, life changes, or medication. Mismatched libido in a relationship is a completely normal thing!
Lube is a specialized formulation that is used during masturbation or partnered sex to help relieve the friction between genitals or sex-toys AND increase sensation or alleviate any discomfort. Our favorite kind is water-based lube.
M of sexual wellness.
Self pleasure. It’s common for people with vulvas to feel shame around masturbation, particularly if they are in relationships, but masturbation is a really wonderful way to connect with your body and pleasure.
Etymologically, menopause means 'period ending'. This term refers to the time when the ovaries stop producing estrogen and progesterone, the hormones needed for reproduction. When someone goes through menopause, they stop ovulating - thus, estrogen production ceases.
The menstrual cycle is four phases: menstruation, the follicular phase, ovulation, and the luteal phase.
A mental practice which can help you feel more present in the moment. By acknowledging your thoughts, emotions and bodily sensations, it can help create a heightened sense of self. You can use mindfulness during masturbation to connect with your pleasure by slowing down, exploring your body with your hands and focusing on every sensation you feel.
Morning after pill.
This is a preventative contraceptive pill that is designed to prevent pregnancy after penis-in-vagina intercourse. It can be effective up to seventy-two hours after sex.
In short, to have a multiple orgasm is to experience climax several times during the same session of sexual activity. For vulva owners, successive orgasms can come during both solo and partnered sex, it doesn't just have to be a shared experience!
While some may refer to what we call outercourse (stimulating another person’s genitals and erogenous zones) as mutual masturbation - we are talking about touching yourself while your partner does the same, to themselves. Basically, simultaneous masturbating!
N of sexual wellness.
The nipple is small, raised, and found on the breast or chest, typically containing the openings of milk ducts. They can also feel pleasurable to touch.
The nipples are a common erogenous zone, and some of us enjoy having them touched or squeezed, during solo or partnered sex. Nipple play can be a great way to get aroused, or really heighten our pleasure during sex. Tip: use a tongue vibrator to try during solo sessions.
O of sexual wellness.
A clitoris masturbation technique that involves circling around the clitoris with your fingers or a clitoral vibrator. You can vary the pressure, from a gentle glide to actively pressing and experiment with different patterns, such as a figure of eight.
Oral sex is a partnered activity that involves giving or receiving stimulation of the genitals via the mouth. Think licking, kissing and sucking the most sensitive and pleasurable spots.
The peak of pleasure sensations. For vulva owners, an orgasm is the physiological response to sexual stimulation through rhythmic vaginal muscle contractions. It is just one of four bodily stages of the sexual response cycle; excitement, plateau, orgasm and resolution.
A study published in 2018, found that straight men orgasmed more than anyone else at 95% of the time, though gay and bisexual men both orgasmed 89% of the time. Straight and bisexual women orgasmed only 65% and 66% of the time. And, lesbian women orgasmed 86% of the time. The difference between straight cis men and straight cis women’s frequency of orgasm is commonly known as the orgasm gap - or, pleasure gap.
Basically all sexual acts that do not involve penetration. Historically, outercourse has been misconstrued as foreplay, meaning that it is intended to lead up to something much bigger, i.e intercourse. That, however, is far from the truth. Outercourse can be the main, or only course of sex.
P of sexual wellness.
Any type of sex with a partner(s). Using the term partnered sex can help to differentiate between sex with another person(s) and solo sex, while also not diluting the significance of self pleasure on our sexual journeys.
Pelvic floor muscles.
Pelvic floor muscles are a group of muscles situated at the base of the pelvis, forming a supportive hammock-like structure. They play a vital role in supporting various pelvic organs, including the bladder, uterus (in menstruators) , and rectum. For vulva owners, the pelvic floor muscles also play a part in our sexual function, as they contract and squeeze the pelvic floor during pleasure and contribute to arousal and orgasm.
This is a gender inclusive term for somebody with a penis! By using this term, we can help to include all folks in our sexual wellness discussions as it moves away from binary descriptions of men and women, and includes queer and trans folk - women can have penises too!
Sexual penetration is the insertion of a body part or another object during anal or vaginal sex. While the term penetration implies that it only refers to penetration which involves a penis, penetration is part of lots of types of sex and can be explored using other body parts such as the fingers, or vibrators and other sex toys.
Pleasure-positive sex education.
Where some traditional models of sex education have put reproduction at the heart of its teachings, a pleasure-positive approach to sex education puts pleasure and enjoyment at the centre.
Don’t be fooled by the name! Plateau is the second stage in our sexual response cycle and it is characterized by surges of sexual excitement as we enter a heightened state of arousal.
PMS stands for premenstrual syndrome. It describes the physical and emotional symptoms experienced by menstruators in the days leading up to the period. This can involve mood swings, irritability, bloating, breast tenderness and fatigue. PMS varies in severity, and can have an effect on overall wellbeing.
P*rn (of the ethical kind!).
Any type of video, art, picture or text which is intended for sexual arousal.
PrEP stands for Pre-exposure prophylaxis and is a medicine designed to prevent HIV. If taken correctly, PrEP can be extremely successful in preventing HIV.
Q of sexual wellness.
A quickie can be for both partnered and solo sex and it’s a great way to have fun with pleasure and intimacy. Perhaps you could have a quick solo sesh in the middle of the work day or meet your partner(s) at home before dinner plans.
R of sexual wellness.
The rectum is located at the end of the colon and on the other side of the anal canal.
The resolution stage of the sexual response cycle (see below) also often comes with a refractory period, or the length of time during which one cannot be aroused by sexual stimulation. Vulva-owners statistically have a shorter refractory period than penis owners. However, this is not the case for all vulva owners, but some can quickly be ready for another round.
This is the 4th stage of the sexual response cycle and it is when the body returns to its normal state as when before you were aroused. Resolution happens regardless of whether you have an orgasm or if you stop before then.
This is another way of experiencing desire called “responsive desire”, where your interest or sexual libido only emerges in response to arousal. This is a perfectly normal way to experience desire and arousal.
Acting out roles in a sexual context to trigger arousal, perhaps bringing alive a sexual fantasy.
S of sexual wellness.
A safe word can be predetermined and used within sexual contexts, particularly when exploring new things or kinks, to indicate a feeling to your partner. Safe words are often used to tell a partner to stop doing something, but you can have a number of different words that you can use during partnered sex.
Safe sex is any sexual contact that helps to prevent STIs and unplanned pregnancy. Where previously this might have been described as safe sex, safer sex indicates that some safe sex practices do not completely eliminate the risks.
Semen is a thick, whitish fluid produced by a penis haver’s reproductive system. Semen is ejaculated from the penis during sexual climax (ejaculation).
Sexual health is the overall well-being of an individual, encompassing physical, emotional, mental, and social aspects, which are connected with sexuality.
Sexual response cycle.
The sexual response cycle is a four-stage model of physiological changes that occur when one becomes sexually stimulated.
Sexuality encompasses the manner in which we express ourselves sexually, which can encompass biological, psychological, physical, erotic, emotional, social, or spiritual sensations and actions.
Sex doesn’t just have to be physical, sexting is a great way to connect with your partner(s). Sexting is a wonderful, modern way of talking dirty, especially if you are in a long distance relationship. Try putting your fantasies into words or asking/describing what you want.
The idea of a sexual script is that we unknowingly are socialized to see sex in a certain way. Our culture, religion, media, and education tend to teach us norms and behaviors that we then absorb as a matter of fact. For sex, that often includes a very cisheteronormative, penetrative-focused narrative.
Sexual shame is when somebody might experience anxiety, guilt or shame around sex and sexuality. This can come from an experience where we might have felt judged or ‘sexually broken’. This could be conversations with friends or family, the messaging from faith and the media, or from a sexual experience. Sex and pleasure should be a joyful experience for us all, and we're determined to help breakdown sexual shame.
Sexual wellness is our overall state of mental, physical and emotional wellbeing in relation to sexual health and pleasure. It includes sexual satisfaction, safe sex practices, and sexual relationships (with ourselves and others) and involves understanding and prioritizing what brings us sexual joy. Looking after our sexual wellness can help boost our self-esteem and confidence, help us know our bodies better, and generally enhance our lives. We can look after our sexual wellness in so many ways, such as good sex education, self-awareness, regular check-ins and check-ups, communication, and using tools to enhance pleasure or intimacy.
Sexual orientation is the term used to describe who a person is attracted to emotionally, romantically, and sexually.
Another term for masturbation. By saying solo sex, it emphasizes the significance that self-pleasure has on our sexual journeys and discovery and can help us to see solo sex, as a valid form of sex.
This is where if you saw a sexy person or had a stray sexy thought, it would activate an internal craving or urge for sex.
STIs stands for sexually transmitted infections such as chlamydia, gonorrhea or genital herpes.
Squirting is a bodily reaction where a liquid is ejaculated during sex. This happens when the bladder fills up under the effect of sexual stimulation, and squirting helps to relieve the bladder tension that cannot be ejected through urination. It hasn’t had any time in the bladder before being ejected, so it’ll have no smell or color. Note, female ejaculation and squirting are not the same.
T of sexual wellness.
Thrush is a common yeast infection which affects the vagina, penis and skin. In the vagina it might lead to itchiness, white discharge or stinging or burning.
Trauma-informed intimacy is an approach to sexuality that makes pleasure more accessible to trauma survivors. This can include discussing boundaries, triggers and fears before any type of sex or intimacy and by practicing aftercare.
Another common term for feeling aroused!
U of sexual wellness.
It's a very odd misconception, debunked often on TikTok, that vulva owners have just one hole for peeing, sex, and periods. However, the urethral opening is the place where urine comes out, and the vagina is where period blood comes out. It's located just below the clitoral glans and above the vaginal opening, and is protected by the labia.
V of sexual wellness.
The vagina is often used to refer to what is actually the vulva but it is actually the opening which can be found within the labia minora. It’s a highly elastic internal organ which performs several essential functions, such as as penetrative sex and for menstrual blood to pass through. In terms of pleasure, the lower one third of the vagina has 90% of the nerve endings, so you don’t actually need to go that deep and the vaginal muscles contract during orgasm!
Vaginismus means that we either experience vaginal pain during penal or other kind of penetration or are unable to have vaginal penetrative sex or vaginal penetration with a tampon, finger, dildo, vibrator etc. Although the symptoms are physical, the underlying issues are emotional.
The concept of virginity is outdated, and a myth. It is based on cis, heteronormative understandings of sex and it implies that there is something to be lost and sees sex as a one-dimensional event, rather than a continuing process. People often define loss of virginity as penetration, but this fails to recognise other types of sex such as oral. Your first time having sex is however you define it!
Often mistaken for the vagina, the vulva encompasses the clitoris, urethral opening, labia (majora and minora), and vaginal entrance. It's the external genitalia!
This is a gender inclusive term for somebody with a vulva! By using this term, we can help to include all folks in our sexual wellness discussions as it moves away from binary descriptions of men and women, and includes queer and trans folk - men can have vulvas too!
Vulvodynia can be described as an ongoing, unprovoked pain in the vulva that does not have an overt cause; where other diagnoses have been ruled out by examination and investigation.
W of sexual wellness.
Although typically associated with penises, wet dreams can happen to everyone! Some vulva owners may actually experience an orgasm in a particularly sexy dream. For penis havers, sperm will be ejaculated while vulva owners may experience vaginal lubrication.
X of sexual wellness.
Not just a text sign off! Kissing and cuddling is an important part of intimacy, and is a great form of aftercare.
Y of sexual wellness.
You don’t need a partner! Sex can be explored solo and it is a great way to connect with yourself and your individual pleasure.
Z of sexual wellness.
The erogenous kind! These are nerve receptors in the skin that pick up light touch and they can be found most densely in areas of the body such as genitals, lips and nipples and they are ultra sensitive to touch. If we were to look at a sensory map of the brain, these erogenous zones would appear much larger than they are in real life as the brain registers sensations in these areas most considerably.